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PARTS OF SPEECH NOTES

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PARTS OF SPEECH NOTES

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Distinct words used in a sentence perform different functions. In English Grammar, Words are divided into eight different classes according to their use. Under this classification of words according to the work they do in a sentence, they are called Parts of Speech. There are total eight parts of speech in English Grammar.

The Noun

A noun is a word used for the name of a person, or thing, quality, state or an action. For example;

Ashoka was a great king.

Here the noun is ‘Ashoka’ which refers to a particular king, hence, it is known as proper noun. While ‘king’ is also known as noun referring to any king in general , hence called as common noun.

Other types of nouns are – Collective, Abstract, Countable, Uncountable noun.

Other examples,

  • Jaipur is known as pink city.
  • The sun shines bright.

Parts of Speech: Adjective

An adjective is a word that is used to add something to the meaning of a noun. it adds quality to a noun, or a pronoun. For instance;

  • She is a brave girl
  • The dog is lazy.
  • Kabir gave me five apples.
  • Some cats like cold water.
  • This car is faster than others.
  • Which way shall we go?

There are different types of adjectives.

  • Descriptive adjectives
  • Numerical adjectives
  • Quantitative adjectives
  • Demonstrative adjectives
  • Interrogative adjectives
  • Emphasizing adjectives
  • Exclamatory adjectives

Part of Speech: Pronoun

A pronoun is a word used instead of a noun or phrase in order to avoid its repetition. For instance,

  • The oranges is where you left them.
  • I then hurt myself.
  • These shirts are mine.
  • The climate of Delhi is like that of Jaipur.
  • Do good to others.
  • Any fool can do that.
  • They respected one another.
  • What is it all about?
  • I asked who was farting?

Parts of Speech: The Verb

A verb is a word that is used to express a state or an action. Hence, it is also considered a doing word. For instance;

  • Delhi is a big city.
  • Gold and silver are useful metals.
  • He spoke the truth.
  • He enjoys good health.
  • He burnt with shame.

Parts of Speech: An Adverb

A pronoun is a word that adds something to the meaning of a verb, adjective, or even another adverb and other parts of speech, except nouns and pronoun. For instance;

  • She worked the problem quickly.
  • A dark little boy sat under a bridge.
  • Govinda reads quite clearly.
  • She was agreeable disappointed.

Part of Speech: Preposition

A preposition is word that is placed before a noun or a pronoun to show its relationship to some other words in a sentence. For instance;

  • The boy is fond of music.
  • There is a fox in the jungle.
  • What are you looking at?
  • The cat jumped off the chair.

Part of Speech: Conjunction

A conjunction is used to join words, clauses or sentences. For instance;

  • Billa and Ranga are cousins.
  • Shila is fat but she is beautiful.
  • Balu looks as if he was waery.
  • Take this and give that.
  • I read the magzine because it interests me.

Parts of Speech: Interjection

An interjection is a word that shows a sudden feeling or sentiment or emotion. For instance;

  • Alas! She is wounded.
  • Hurrah! We have won the prestigious match.
  • Well done! I am proud of you.

KINDS OF SENTENCES – ENGLISH STUDY MATERIAL & NOTES

Upon reading the following group of words, you would understand some meaning conveyed:-

  • An aeroplane flies in the sky.
  • The Sun rises in the East.
  • Honesty is the best policy.

from the above, we can conclude that a group of words which makes complete meaning is called a sentence.

The formation of sentence causes difference in meaning. Sentences are classified on basis of their uses in English language. To introduce English grammar, it is essential to understand the usefulness of sentences along with their kinds. The types of sentences are described in brief in the following part.

Kinds of sentences:

Let us first discuss the purpose served by different sentences. A sentence is used for following purposes.

  1. to make a statement
  2. To ask a question.
  3. To give a command, request, entreaty or wish
  4. Express some strong or sudden feeling

The above mentioned purpose of sentences point towards four distinct types of functions performed by sentences. Therefore, sentences can be of following four types:

1. Declarative / Assertive Sentence: That makes statement or assertion.

For instance,

  • Radha is a good student.
  • Ram is going to New York.
  • Shahrukh plays cricket.

2. Interrogative Sentence: these are sentences that asks a question.

For instance,

  • Where do you live?
  • What did she say?
  • Where are the kids?

3. Imperative Sentence:  these are sentences that expresses a command or an entreaty.

For instance,

  • Mind your own business.
  • Please let me dance.
  • Be quiet.

4. Exclamatory sentence:  these are sentences that expresses strong feeling.

For instance,

  • What a fool you are!
  • How hot the day is!
  • May God help us!

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General Rules of making sentences:

  • Every sentence begins with a Capital letter.
  • A full stop is placed at the end of every imperative or declarative sentence.
  • A question mark is placed at the end of every Interrogative Sentence.
  • An Exclamation mark is placed at the end of Exclamatory sentence.

SUBJECT AND PREDICATE:

Every sentence is composed of two parts. The part of a sentence which talk about the person or the thing about which we are speaking is known as the Subject.
And the part of sentence that talks about the Subject is known as Predicate. For example,

Therefore, a sentence has the following two things

  1. a name or some person or thing (subject)
  2. something about that person or thing (predicate)

Usually the subject of the sentence comes first followed by the predicate.

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PHRASE AND CLAUSE:

Phrase is that part of sentence which makes sense, but not complete sense. These are a group of words. For instance,

  • It was a sunrise of great beauty.
  • The Sun rises in the east.

Here, in first example, the highlighted part does convey a meaning but does not makes complete sense. They are phrases.

Clause is that group of words that forms a part of sentence, while containing a subject and a predicate. For instance,

  • She has a chain which is made of Silver.
  • People who pay their debts are trustworthy.

In the above example, there is a subject in the highlighted part along with a predicate. Therefore, they are considered a clause.

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